10 Most Beautiful Stained-Glass Windows in Churches All Over the World

One of the best things about churches is the intricate and eye-catching stained-glass artwork around the building. When the sun strikes these stunning glass masterpieces, colorful light showers most of the church’s naturally dark interior during daytime. Darkness becomes unnoticeable – the whole church becomes a spectacle of dazzling beams of light. Some churches all over the world take their stained-glass windows to the next level through more detailed and complex designs. Here are 10 of the best stained-glass windows in churches you will ever see:

Cathedral of Notre Dame (Paris, France)

Known as the seat of the Archbishop of Paris, the Cathedral of Notre Dame is also popular as one of the best architectural examples of French Gothic design. Many of the stained-glass windows of this cathedral dates back to the 13th century – all the way back to the time of church’s construction! When it comes to style, the stained glass presents the big influence of naturalism, leading to a secular look which does not usually show in early Romanesque architecture. The highlight of the church’s most precious stained-glass masterpieces is its collection of heavenly rose windows.

Worcester Cathedral (Worcestershire, England)

Previously called Worcester Priory, Worcester Cathedral is a gigantic Anglican church. It overlooks the Severn River. It is known as the seat of the Bishop of Worcester. Actually, the official name of this cathedral is way longer than its popular one. It is the Cathedral Church of Christ and the Blessed Mary the Virgin of Worcester. The cathedral was constructed from 1084 to 1504. It bears different styles of English architecture such as Perpendicular Gothic and Norman. Between 1857 and 1874, it was restored by Sir George Gilbert Scott and W.A. Perkins. Most of the stained-glass artworks were made during this time.

St. Mary’s Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption in Covington (Kentucky, United States)

A Roman Catholic minor basilica, St. Mary’s Cathedral Basilica of the Assumption was constructed under the third bishop of the Diocese of Covington known as Camillus Paul Maes. In 1895, the construction took place in order to replace the old 1834 church. Pope Pius XII was the one who made the cathedral into a minor basilica. St Denis in France was the inspiration for the interior’s model. St. Mary’s interior has murals made by a local named Frank Duveneck. The high altar was built with Carrara marble. Its floors are Breche and Rosata marble. Amazingly, St. Mary is believed to have the biggest handmade stained-glass window all over the world.

Lawrence OP/Flickr

Martyrs’ Shrine (Midland, Canada)

Outside Quebec, Martyrs’ Shrine is the only national shrine in Canada. St. Joseph’s Oratory, located in Montreal, is the country’s other national shrine and just the same age as Martyrs’. This church was being renovated the same year as London’s cathedral. Even though the architect did not want the artworks depicting the 14 Stations of the Cross, his opinion became irrelevant leading to these artworks’ display in today’s church. These artworks even became part of the church’s highlights. Regarding the stained-glass windows, these were given to the church for free with paintwork all the way from Germany.

Jeff S. PhotoArt at HDCanvas.ca/Flickr

Chichester Cathedral (West Sussex, England)

With its formal name which is the Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, Chichester Cathedral is the seat of Chichester’s Anglican Bishop. In 1075, this church was established as a cathedral when the bishop’s seat was transferred from Selsey. Meanwhile, Marc Chagall was a famous stained-glass artist. When the Dean of Chichester, Walter Hussey, saw the artist’s magnificent glass artworks at the Louvre museum in 1960, the cathedral decided to commission Chagall to design its window. Fun fact: The cathedral’s window and Chagall’s previous glass artwork in a hospital are the only ones dominated with the color red. Chagall’s preferred color actually was blue.

St. Peter and St. Paul’s Church (Lavenham, England)

A parish church listed as Grade I, St. Peter and St. Paul’s Church is a wool church, considered as the best architectural example in England when it comes to Late Perpendicular Gothic. It was rebuilt in the 14th century from wood to stone. Nowadays, the oldest part of the church is the chancel. The prominent stained-glass window of the church is composed mainly of purple hues, contrasting nicely with the antique quality of the stone walls.

St. Mary’s Church (Melton Mowbray, England)

Although St. Mary’s Church badly needs restoration because of its deteriorating state, this parish church was actually known as one of the best and biggest churches of Leicestershire. Its stained-glass window actually says it all. The church still looks grand despite the rundown walls and other architectural flaws because of the classic and intricate stained-glass artwork. For now, an appeal for £2 million fund was started to restore the once glorious parish church. The church should be saved because of its antique quality with remains tracing back to the 13th until 15th century. Its tower’s stonework even goes back to the year 1170.

St. Vitus Cathedral (Prague, Czech Republic)

All it took for this grand cathedral to be finished was nearly 600 years. That’s how magnificent and classic St. Vitus Cathedral is. It is known as one of the most luxurious cathedrals in Europe. It became very essential to the culture and religion of the people in Czech Republic. This cathedral also has a lot of precious objects such as the Last Judgement mosaic from the 14th century, Charles IV’s and St. Wenceslas’ tombs, St. John of Nepomuck’s intricate silver tomb and finally, the grand stained-glass artwork of Alfons Mucha. Mucha’s artwork presents the lives of St. Methodius and St. Cyril. This is one of my personal favorites because of the complex details on the glass.

Sagrada Familia (Barcelona, Spain)

Because of the residents of Barcelona, Sagrada Familia came to be. The gigantic church became a symbol of Barcelona’s culture and strong faith. Thanks to the architectural genius of project director Antoni Gaudi, Sagrada Familia became one of the most complex and stunning architectural designs in history. Let’s proceed to the highlight – windows! The church’s windows are so prominent because of their coverage which measures at least two stories high. Being the center of the building, churchgoers will really look upwards as they pray because of the heavenly colors. The colorful lights do not only illuminate the interior; they also highlight the complex structures of the building. This is definitely one of my most favorite stained-glass artworks.

Connie Ma/Flickr

Sainte Chapelle (Paris, France)

This royal chapel is one of the lasting buildings of the Capetian palace. Saint Chapelle was damaged in the French Revolution but thankfully restored in the 19th century. No wonder, it houses one of the most beautiful stained-glass collection in the world which can be traced to the 13th century. The stained-glass windows present significant religious events: the Life of John the Evangelist, the Infancy of Christ, the Passion, the Book of Genesis, and scenes from David and the Book of Kings, Esther, Judith or Job, Jeremiah or Tobias, Judges, Joshua or Deuteronomy, Numbers or Leviticus, Joseph and Exodus. The last window tells the story of kingship, Christ’s relics, miracles, and King Louis’s influence. I really have to see these majestic windows for myself.

Lawrence OP/Flickr

Final Thoughts

There’s definitely a reason why churches exert so much time, effort and money just to finish intricate and costly stained-glass windows. If there were no colorful windows, churches would look dark and lifeless. We can’t have that because the House of God must always look beautiful and grand.

4 Ways to Start an Ecommerce Business with $100 Budget

If you’re planning right now to start an online business or service, then you’re going on a journey to the world of ecommerce. The best part about this type of business is that you can invest just a minimal amount of money to let people know your products are available. Compared to building your own actual store, ecommerce is way cheaper when it comes to investment.

More about Ecommerce

Ecommerce is a shorter and more popular term for electronic commerce. It refers to any type of business or service that uses the internet for communicating with customers and selling products. Under ecommerce, we have retail, music, auction and trade websites as examples. Ecommerce is considered as one of the most important breakthroughs the internet has offered.

The Challenge

The internet can be confusing to both avid users and newbies. Why? There’s a lot going on out there. You might be unsure where to start your business. You’re probably confused in choosing the right website to work with. Making a lot of mistakes during startup can lead to more expenses. I know I said investing in ecommerce can be cheap. But, that is only possible when you know what to do.

Important Tips

I used to work as a marketer for an Amazon business years ago. Here are lessons and realizations I’ve learned as I went through the obstacles of ecommerce:

Choose the right products to sell.

I have to admit, not all products are effective to be sold online. This step can actually be the make or break of your ecommerce business. You don’t have to spend anything in this part of the process. You just have to research before deciding what to sell. Now, the factors you have to consider when it comes to choosing products are availability, level of demand and their disadvantages. Knowing the flaws of a popular product enables you to give a better alternative for it. That’s why competitors emerge, which is a good thing for new businesses.

For example, my client from Amazon wanted to start selling harnesses for dogs. But, he needed to be different from most sellers of this type of product. So, I researched in the negative Amazon reviews of the most popular products. The most common complaints were overly thick harnesses that make dogs uncomfortable because of intense heat. Researching deeper, polyester mesh is a good alternative for a lighter yet still durable material. So, I contacted a supplier to manufacture polyester mesh dog harnesses and package them according to our brand’s logo and image.

Of course, the $100 investment I was talking about doesn’t include the products. You should not start an ecommerce vehicle if you still don’t have the actual products. Manufacturing can take months or years. You don’t want to give your potential customers false hope.

Other ways to research for the right products are getting opinions from your family and friends about what they currently need that is still not popular in the market. You can also ask them about their usual complaints or pet peeves on daily products. You can even research in forums found in Reddit and comments in Facebook pages or groups.

Sell the product with catchy words.

This is also another free process in starting an ecommerce business. You just need your creativity with words. The offer must address directly the product’s special features that are not usually found in its category. In our previous step, you have to research for common complaints in one specific product category. Now, apply it on your own product through catchy yet realistic statements.

Don’t claim “Check out the best dog harness ever!” or “You will never regret buying this dog harness!” These statements are too exaggerated that they seem to appear like clickbait spams. The right statement is “Check out our lightweight and durable pet harness to keep your dog comfortable and cool!”

Buy a domain and create your own ecommerce website.

This time, you need to start spending your $100 budget. Creating a website is either free or not. But, the downside of free sites is that they don’t look convincing enough for the consumers. You can’t mention the company or brand name alone on the site URL. Free URLs usually include the name of the website builder you used after the brand name.

Don’t worry because the only thing you have to spend for is the domain. For less than $50, you can already purchase one. The price depends on the package the site builder offers. The $50 budget for the domain also depends. If you want to hire a web designer, then you would spend extra money.

Good thing that some websites such as Weebly and Wix offer beautiful templates for you to use. I used Wix several times already and remained satisfied because it is so user-friendly. You just have to follow a simple design for your products. What matters most anyway is the content. To achieve effective website content:

  • Make sure to be specific and engaging in your words.
  • Paragraphs must be short.
  • Letters should not be too small and hard to read because of mismatched colors to the background.
  • Use high-definition pictures for a more eye-candy site.
  • Include links or detailed information to ensure that customers can actually buy your products for real.

Create pay-per-click ads.

How can people see your website and product pages though? For less than $50, you can avail online advertisements though Google AdWords. It seems complex but tutorials in making Google Ad campaigns are easy enough to understand. One ad text is composed of a short title, a link and a short description – just like the ads you see when you search something on Google. Just set a price that’s not too high for each ad text. I usually set only a maximum of $1 for each ad. Fifty dollars can already give you at least 50 views on your website and other pages.

You can also use these free options for better results. Visit Reddit and search a subreddit which is relevant to your brand or product. Simply create a post under that subreddit and leave it up until you get customers. Again, stay catchy with the title of the post. You can also make your own Facebook page and share it with your friends. Convince them to share it as well.

Final Thoughts

The beauty of ecommerce is that business thrives under your fingertips. It may be easy to start an online business, but you also have to make sure to maintain it. Don’t expect to earn when you start an ecommerce business and just wait for customers afterwards. Do continuous research, find ways to gain extra investment, make more connections, and create additional websites or ads online.

The History and Transfer Process behind Gigantic Cyclorama Paintings

Have you ever wondered how famous museums managed to have huge paintings? Just imagine the work done just to transfer one gigantic painting from one place to another. What makes it even more difficult? Some humongous paintings are circular in form!

History of Panoramas and Cycloramas

From the 1870s to the 1880s, the United States was crazy about cycloramas. Cycloramas started when gigantic panoramas were created in the later part of the 18th century. Artists in Europe loved to paint larger-than-life artworks that showed explorers, exotic places, landscapes, mythology, Biblical scenes, major battles, and other interesting themes. From panoramas, the gigantic paintings turned into 360-degree paintings called cycloramas. These paintings could only be installed in circular buildings. Their main purpose was to give a realistic experience to the viewers, as if the guests were part of the scene in the painting.


Here are examples of famous panoramas or cycloramas:

“The Battle of Gettysburg” (1883)

One famous example of a cyclorama is “The Battle of Gettysburg.” This painting is known as the biggest oil painting of all time. It was created by French painter Paul Philippoteaux who started making cycloramas back in Europe in 1871. Philippoteaux painted the Gettysburg cyclorama because of investors from Chicago. He created the cyclorama for two years. But, he couldn’t handle everything. So, he hired approximately 24 assistants. The display was so successful that Philippoteaux was asked again to paint three more cycloramas solely focusing on the famous Battle of Gettysburg.

Paul Philippoteaux/National Park Service

“The Battle of Atlanta” (1887)

After the trend of “The Battle of Gettysburg,” the American Panorama Company was founded by William Wehner. The founder was born in Germany but lived in Milwaukee. The company’s most detailed work was “The Battle of Atlanta.” Wehner probably chose this battle scene because one of his patrons was the commander of the Fifteenth Corps for the Battle of Atlanta, Major General John Logan. The commander was also known as “Black Jack.”

Like Philippoteaux, Wehner also hired more than a dozen artists. But, he chose painters from Germany. Before the process, the artists really researched about the battle through notebooks and sketchbooks from Civil War campaign artist named Theodore Davis, official government maps and documents, veterans from both camps, and going all the way to Atlanta to see where the actual battle took place. Before the debut, unfortunately, Black Jack died. By 1890, the American Panorama Company was problematic. So, Wehner decided to sell the painting to Paul Atkinson, a promoter from Georgia. Many years passed and the painting still didn’t get much attention as expected. That’s why in 1898, “The Battle of Atlanta” ended up in the City of Atlanta itself through donation.

Atlanta History Center

The Dilemma

Now here’s where the fun begins, Atlanta built another building in 1921 to transfer “The Battle of Atlanta” to Grant Park. Funnily enough, the city didn’t thought of measuring the painting meticulously. It prioritized the building, which turned out to be smaller than the giant cyclorama. To solve it, some parts of the cyclorama were cut out to fit most of the painting into the building. The result? Big empty spaces.

The solution was made in 1936. A team from Works Project Administration added 128 soldiers made of plaster, railroad tracks, artillery and landscape features to put volume onto the red floor representing Georgia’s soil. The cyclorama became a 3D painting.

However, in 2014, the city thought of moving the painting once again to attract more visitors. From Grant Park, “The Battle of Atlanta” was moved to the Atlanta History Center. The transfer was a great sacrifice because the painting weighs seven tons and stands 359 feet wide by 42 feet high. The massive weight and height led to two years of planning and preparing.

Mike Mergen/The New York Times

The Transfer Process

Workers spent many days just rolling “The Battle of Atlanta.” Afterwards, two spools were finished – both weighing 6,200 pounds! Now, how to carry these gigantic spools? A crane was used to carefully lift them. Everyone behind the project made sure to do the process after the residents go home, the traffic slows down, and the rush hour ends. It usually happens at 3:00 A.M.

Sam Whitehead/GPB

The spools were not raised on the same day. After raising, the painting was hanging like a shower curtain. It had creases and folds. Improvements are planned to be presented next year during the reopening.

8 Fashion Inspirations before You Shop for Your Valentine’s Day Outfit

Valentine’s Day is coming up! Aside from dating and partying, you can also celebrate the special day by wearing it. I’m going to share with you eight outfits that are perfect for V-Day. You can use these as inspirations for your OOTD on February 14.

Heart Prints

This dress just screams, “Happy Valentine’s Day!” Aside from the fact that it is very feminine, the heart prints perfectly capture the essence of V-Day. Match this with a long, gold necklace, and a pair of pumps to capture everybody’s hearts as you pass by.

One Big Heart

From a dress full of hearts to this – why not wear just one big heart? This outfit looks so catchy because everything is white and black, except the huge heart print on the chest. It looks so simple, clean and easy on the eyes.

Beige Feminine Casual

Who says that red is the color of V-Day? Well, almost everyone would agree. But, beige can actually be a good color for the day of hearts. It is a color of elegance and femininity. Coupled with a casual outfit – long pencil skirt and pumps – beige looks classier than ever.

Fierce Cupid

People normally see Cupid as a cherub wearing a white robe. You can elevate the look of the god of desire by wearing a white off-shoulder cape dress. With gold accessories and light-colored heels, you would look like a goddess yourself.

Red Minimalist

You don’t have to wear red all over to celebrate Valentine’s Day. For example, it is okay to only wear red on your blouse, accessories and bag like this outfit below. As you can see, red looks so elegant when paired with gray pants and heels. Red accessories can also be mixed with silver.

Valentine Vixen

How about a powerful, sensual look for V-Day? Match a red laced crop top with a long black skirt to balance it out. You don’t want to overdo it. Then wear black stilettos to complete the outfit. Put more red on your lips and purse. The ensemble makes you look fierce.

Pretty in Pink

Of course, we have to add pink to the equation. Pink is so soft and feminine. Wearing a little pink dress would emphasize you as a woman. Also, the effect of your appearance relies on which shade of pink you’re going to wear. Soft, light pink gives a gentle look. Hot pink, on the other hand, can give the same effect as the Valentine Vixen. If you want that look, go for it!

Rosy Skirt

Wear a skirt as if it was a petal from a rose. Choose a long, flowing red skirt or gown. This is one of the best looks to wow your Valentine’s Day date. You would be the epitome of elegance and sophistication.

Final Thoughts

The perfect outfit for Valentine’s Day is not about the red color. It is about balance and what look you’re going for. In the end, it is still up to your confidence and personality to rock the whole outfit, no matter what color it is.